Original Research

Knowledge, attitude, and practices on diabetes, hypertension, and diabetic retinopathy and the factors that motivate screening for diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a pyramidal model of eye health care


Sneha Lingam1 B Tech, Student

Padmaja K Rani2 M.S FNB (retina), Ophthalmologist *

Sheeladevi Sethu3 Phd, Public health specialist

Vimala Kotapati4 BA, Field investigator

Taraprasad Das5 FRCS, Vice chair


1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA

2, 3, 4, 5 Road No 2, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telengana, India

ACCEPTED: 11 July 2017

early abstract:

Aim: To report the results of KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) study related to Diabetes mellitus (DM), Hypertension (HTN), and Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) of patient populations at different levels (Tertiary (T), Secondary (S) and Primary (P)) of a pyramidal model of eye health care.
Methods: A total of 202 participants, consisting of equal numbers of diabetic and non-diabetic patients at a Tertiary urban facility (T), a Secondary rural facility (S) and a Primary (P) community screening programs, were surveyed on their knowledge, knowledge sources, attitudes, practices, and factors that motivate use of eye health services.
Results: People with diabetes had a higher mean knowledge and attitude score about DM, HTN and DR (67.3% T, 59.4% S, 47.0% P) than non-diabetics (41.8% T, 29.0%S, 23.5%P; p<0.001). Awareness of DR was more 65.3% among diabetics compared to 22.0% among non-diabetics at all locations. Most participants in all locations were aware of hypertension (84.0% T, 65.3% S, 52.9%
P), but few knew it could affect the eyes (30.0% T, 12.2% S, 13.7%P) or be associated with diabetic complications (30.0%T, 32.7%S, 21.8%P). Many participants never previously had a dilated eye examination (2% T, 40% S, 50% P). Participants were
motivated to visit an eye facility for a routine checkup (70.6%), poor vision (22.6%), or a glucose/blood pressure test (17.7%) at Primary level facility and for follow-up or poor vision at the other facilities (28% and 42% Tertiary, 50% and 30% Secondary).
Conclusion: Practice-oriented education and advertising of facilities tailored for the relevant populations at each level of an eye health pyramid and continuation of fundus, glucose, and blood pressure screening programs can help in creating awareness about Diabetes, Hypertension and Diabetic retinopathy.