James Cook University ISSN 1445-6354
Introduction:This study aimed to compare the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) between Sami and non-Sami inhabitants of Northern Norway participating in the SAMINOR 1 Survey and the SAMINOR 2 Clinical Survey, and to track DM prevalence over time.
Methods:SAMINOR 1 (2003–2004) and SAMINOR 2 (2012–2014) are cross-sectional, population-based studies that each recruited Sami and non-Sami inhabitants. The data used in this paper were restricted to participants aged 40–79 years in 10 municipalities in NorthernNorway. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires and underwent clinical examination and blood sampling. Both questionnaire information and non-fasting/random plasma glucose levels were used to ascertain DM. The study included 6288 and 5765 participants with complete data on DM and outcomes, i.e., 54.6% and 46.3% of the invited samples, respectively.
Results:No difference in the prevalence of DM between Sami and non-Sami participants was observed, in either survey. Women had a statistically significantly lower DM prevalence than men in SAMINOR 2. Mean waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference increased substantially in both sexes; mean body mass index increased only slightly in men and remained unchanged in women. The total, age-standardized DM prevalence in SAMINOR 1 and 2 was 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.2–10.7) and 11.2% (95% CI: 10.4–12.0), respectively, and the proportion of self-reported (i.e., known) DM increased from 49.2% to 73.0%. In almost the same time span (2004–2015), the use of oral glucose-lowering agents increased.
Conclusion:Overall, no ethnic difference was observed in DM prevalence. Overall DM prevalence was high, but did not change significantly from SAMINOR 1 to SAMINOR 2. The percentage of known versus unknown cases of DM increased, as did the prescription of medication for DM between 2004 and 2015.