Project Report

Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program: a descriptive case study of implementation in Alberta, Canada


name here
Sabrina Lopresti
1 PhD

name here
Noreen D Willows
2 PhD, Professor *

name here
Kate E Storey
3 PhD, RD, Associate Professor

name here
Tara-Leigh McHugh
4 PhD, Professor

name here
IYMP National Team
, Canada


*Dr Noreen D Willows


1, 2 Faculty of Agricultural, Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5, Canada

3 School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5, Canada

4 Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5, Canada


29 September 2020 Volume 20 Issue 3


RECEIVED: 3 March 2020

REVISED: 4 August 2020

ACCEPTED: 5 August 2020


Lopresti S, Willows ND, Storey KE, McHugh T, IYMP National Team.  Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program: a descriptive case study of implementation in Alberta, Canada . Rural and Remote Health 2020; 20: 5919.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence

go to urlCited by

The Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program

download icon download PDF


Introduction:  Children spend a significant amount of their day at school, so school-based health promotion interventions are one strategy for improving health and wellness for Indigenous children globally. The Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program (IYMP) is one such intervention in Canada. IYMP’s core components include physical activities/games, healthy snacks, relationship-building activities and traditional Indigenous teachings. The theoretical framework guiding IYMP is based on the pedagogical teachings (Circle of Courage and Four R’s) of two Indigenous scholars (Brokenleg and Kirkness). Between 2012 and 2018, IYMP was rippled (IYMP team’s preferred term for ‘scaled up’) to 13 Indigenous school communities across Canada. Schools are encouraged to tailor the program to suit their unique contexts. There is little information about the scalability of school health programs developed for Indigenous children. The purpose of the present research was to describe the implementation of IYMP during its first year of rippling to two rural First Nation community schools in the province of Alberta.
Methods:  This descriptive case study described the first year of implementation (January to June 2017) of IYMP as an after-school healthy living program in two rural First Nation community schools. IYMP was led by a young adult health leader (education assistant) and youth mentors (grades 6–12) from each community. Program implementation was documented using program logs and observational field notes of program sessions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze log data.
Results:  In total, 33 children, 2 young adult health leaders, 19 high school youth mentors and 6 junior high school mentors from both First Nation schools participated in IYMP. On average, there were 11.7 children (median=11, range=6–24) per program session, typically 3 males and 7 females. Weekly sessions had a mean duration of 87 minutes (median=90, range=75–110). Foods most often offered to children were whole, unprocessed foods such as fruits and vegetables. Water was served at each session. Physical activities had a mean duration of 70.7 minutes per session (median=70, range=45–95). Activity sessions occurred in the gymnasium 73% of the time or in both the gymnasium and outside 27% of the time, depending on weather and environmental conditions. The intensity level of physical activity sessions was mostly ‘vigorous’ (59%), followed by ‘walking’ (32%) or ‘sedentary’ (9%). Traditional teachings were embedded within the program activities and sometimes included the participation of Elders from the community. Activities included making bracelets using Medicine Wheel colors with Elder teachings/Elder participation, sharing circles, the Seven Grandfather Teachings (ie wisdom, love, respect, bravery, honesty, humility and truth), use of First Nations languages in games or in prayer, and the ceremonial burning of sweetgrass (ie smudging).
Conclusion:  While modifications to program delivery were encouraged, both schools delivered all core components of IYMP at each session. IYMP planning could explore ways to make the program more appealing to males. IYMP’s flexibility, use of an Indigenous theoretical framework, cultural infusions and resonance with Indigenous values likely facilitated its rippling to these schools. The next steps are to determine if the delivery of IYMP to additional communities has adaptability, effectiveness and high impact.


Canada, First Nations, health promotion, healthy eating, implementation, Indigenous, physical activity, prevention, school programs.

full article:


Indigenous peoples are a distinct cultural group that live within, or are attached to, geographically distinct ancestral dwellings1. Globally, Indigenous peoples share issues related to colonization including dispossession from traditional lands and the fragmentation of Indigenous social, cultural, economic and political institutions2-4. High morbidity and low life expectancy occur because of poverty and malnutrition, mental health issues, and a high prevalence of chronic and infectious diseases2. Indigenous children and youth also experience a disproportionate burden of poor health (eg obesity and diabetes)3,4. Articles 21 and 22 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples call for particular attention to be paid to the needs of Indigenous children and youth5

In Canada, First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples are the fastest growing segment of the population6. One approach to reduce health disparities among Indigenous youth is the implementation of decolonizing strengths-based initiatives7. Children spend a significant amount of their day in school settings, therefore comprehensive school-based health (CSH) promotion approaches are ideal to support positive health behaviors and improvements in educational outcomes8-10. In addition, CSH encourages children to become change agents who promote health behaviors outside of the school environment and in their home environments11-13. CSH approaches for Indigenous children should be culturally relevant, sustainable and promote community autonomy14.

Peer mentorship in Indigenous CSH settings in Canada has been shown to promote positive lifestyle behaviors among younger students including increased fruit and vegetable consumption, increased physical activity and reduced consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and non-nutritious foods15,16. Those who act as peer mentors show improved social skills, self-esteem, sense of empowerment and social responsibility16,17. Given the promising health promotion potential of peer mentorship, more information about peer-led programs for Indigenous youth is required18.

The Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program (IYMP) is a peer-mentorship health promotion initiative in Canada that aims to reduce risk factors for obesity and diabetes, and improve the overall health and wellbeing of Indigenous children and youth. Its core program components are physical activities/games, healthy snacks, relationship building and traditional Indigenous teachings (ie historical cultural values of wellbeing passed down by Elders). It is delivered as a community–university partnership19. The theoretical framework guiding IYMP (Fig1) is based on the pedagogical teachings of two Indigenous scholars: Martin Brokenleg’s Circle of Courage, focusing on the four universal needs of children and youth required to foster resilience (belonging, mastery, independence and generosity)20; and Verna Kirkness’ Four R’s of Learning (respect, relevance, reciprocity, responsibility)21,22.

The pilot phase of IYMP occurred from 2010 to 2012 in the province of Manitoba. It was found to be effective for mitigating increases in children’s weight gain and waist circumference, and improving healthy living knowledge and self-efficacy23. The Public Health Agency of Canada included IYMP in its list of Best Practices – that is, evidence-based interventions that promote healthy living24,25. Subsequently, IYMP was rippled (IYMP team’s preferred term for ‘scaled up’) nationwide to 13 communities across Canada to determine if it remained effective across multiple settings26.

The purpose of this research was to describe the implementation of IYMP during its first year of rippling to two First Nations community schools in the province of Alberta. Both rural schools delivered the same program with local tailoring of the cultural teachings component. In year 1 of implementation in these communities, IYMP was offered once per week for 20 weeks as a 90-minute after-school program. Youth mentors provided mentorship and offered younger elementary students healthy snacks, physical activity games, and relationship-building activities that included traditional Indigenous teachings under the guidance of a community-appointed young adult health leader (YAHL) (education assistant). The findings of this implementation science research will contribute to understanding the characteristics of implementing a CSH intervention in Indigenous communities. This information can be used to develop feasible health promotion programs for Indigenous children and youth, in Canada and worldwide. 

table image Figure 1:  Theoretical framework guiding the Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program.


This descriptive case study27 described the implementation of IYMP as an after-school program in two rural schools in Alberta from January 2017 to June 2017. Case studies are useful when studying a phenomenon in a particular setting to illustrate how things occur in practice28. The case is viewed as an object or a ‘bounded system’ and, therefore, a case study was appropriate to study the implementation of IYMP27,29. Descriptive case studies gather data from several sources to provide a rich description of the phenomenon under study27,29.


The two band-operated schools implementing IYMP are located in small rural First Nation communities in Treaty 6 Territory. They are approximately 1 hour apart by car and 60 km from the closest urban city. Cree, Stoney and English languages are spoken. Each school has a gymnasium, kitchen and outdoor school grounds.

Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program participants

IYMP participants included community-appointed YAHLs (education assistants) who oversaw program delivery and supported the Indigenous youth mentors (grades 6–12, ages 12–18 years) in their role. Youth mentors were identified by teachers or YAHLs. Participating elementary school children (known as mentees) were in grades 4 or 5. In August 2016, an IYMP National Team gathering occurred in Winnipeg, Manitoba, for YAHLs, youth mentors, community leaders, Elders/Knowledge Keepers, research trainees and researchers. At this gathering, each school received an IYMP program manual related to the core components of IYMP, with the understanding that communities would tailor traditional Indigenous teachings in ways that honored the unique cultural context of their own communities.

Data generation

The primary researcher (SL) was a non-Indigenous PhD candidate who formed a relationship with one of the school communities in 2015 and became involved in the IYMP implementation planning process in 2016. SL attended the 2016 national IYMP gathering where she met the IYMP National Team. Subsequently, SL participated in local, regional and national gatherings and teleconferences.

The data generation strategies used in the case study included SL’s onsite participant observations (n=11) of IYMP sessions in the two schools between February 2017 and June 2017. Observations generally lasted 2 hours and included session set-up and clean-up. Notes were recorded on an IYMP program log form (Fig2). The form included information on participants, program activities, content and duration (minutes) of program components, and contextual factors (eg participants’ engagement with each other).

Observations were made about the healthfulness of food served to children using the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth30. Foods were categorized as choose most often, choose sometimes or choose least often based on nutrient content and how foods align with Canada’s food guide. Choose most often foods are high in nutrients and low in sugar, sodium and fat (eg fruits, vegetables, whole grains and water). Choose sometimes foods contain moderate nutrients and have moderate amounts of sugar, sodium and fat (eg dried fruit with added sugar, sweetened yoghurt). Choose least often foods have low nutritional value and are high in sugars, sodium and fats (eg cookies and donuts).

IYMP physical activities focused on moderate to vigorous intensity activities based on the Canadian 24-hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth31. Children or youth who engage in these intensity levels daily do better in school, feel happier, maintain healthy body weights and improve their self-confidence22,31. Intensity categories of physical activities in IYMP sessions were ranked as ‘sedentary’, where participants were standing in place, lying down or sitting; ‘walking’ where individuals were walking at a casual pace; or ‘vigorous’, where participants were running, jogging or doing cartwheels where they became visibly sweaty (face/clothing) and had rosy cheeks22.

Traditional cultural activities and teachings were embedded within the program. They included traditional teachings (eg Medicine Wheel or Seven Grandfather Teachings), language (Stoney or Cree) and ceremony (eg prayer or smudging).

Program facilitation styles were recorded as frequencies based on the Teacher Monitoring Analysis System and included leading – leader takes control and sets up game; encouraging – leader gives verbal encouragement to participate; facilitating – leader puts out equipment; modeling – leader participates; and unstructured – leader supervises but doesn’t facilitate32.

Log data were entered into a spreadsheet, analyzed and reported using descriptive statistics: number, mean, median and range for interval data. Frequencies were reported for ordinal and categorical data. Quantitative findings were triangulated with observations and field notes to enhance rigour and to provide context for the quantitative findings. Due to the small number of participants, data from both schools were aggregated to strengthen findings and to maintain participant anonymity.

table image Figure 2:  Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program implementation log form.

Ethics approval

This research adhered to Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP) principles, enabling each school participating in IYMP implementation to make decisions regarding why, how and by whom data were collected, used or shared33. Community members formed advisory groups that approved research protocols and measures. Informed written consent was obtained from YAHLs. Elementary school children and youth mentors obtained written parental consent and provided their assent to participate. Community consent was in the form of a Band Council Resolution. This study was approved by the University of Alberta Research Ethics Board 1 (Pro00069533).


A total of 33 children, 19 youth mentors (high school) and 6 junior mentors (junior high school) from the two schools participated in IYMP. Five participants (2 children; 3 youth mentors) withdrew from the program because their families moved out of the school jurisdiction. On average, there were 11.7 children (median=11, range=6–24) per program session, 3.3 males (median= 3, range=1–6) and 8.5 females (median=7, range=5–18). One YAHL and 4.6 youth mentors (median=3, range=0–13) were present per session, along with other facilitators (mean 1.2, median=1, range=0–3) such as research coordinators, teachers, parents or Elders. Based on SL’s field notes, there were fewer male than female youth mentors present during program sessions. Weekly IYMP sessions had a mean duration of 87 minutes (median=90, range=75–110). For all sessions, facilitation styles were always combinations of leading, encouraging, facilitating and modeling. No sessions included unstructured supervision.

The nutrition component delivered at each session had a mean duration of 16.8 minutes (median=15, range=10–25), with youth mentors leading the session 41% of the time and YAHLs 59% of the time. YAHLs, youth mentors and sometimes children would help to prepare and/or put out the snacks. Food was most often served in the gymnasium, where socializing would take place amongst all participants and laughter was often observed. The foods most often included were whole, unprocessed foods such as pineapple, carrot, cantaloupe, grapes and bananas. Packaged snacks were included such as crackers and cheese, fruit sauce and fruit cups. All children were observed eating at each session and many said they enjoyed the food. No food wastage was observed. The majority of food was into the choose most often (68%) or choose sometimes (23%) category; however, 9% were in the choose least often category foods such as fruit gum candies. Water was served at every session, with the occasional addition of juice.

Physical activities had an average duration of 70.7 minutes per session (median=70, range=45–95). Youth mentors led sessions 45% of the time and YAHLs 55% of the time. Activity sessions occurred in the gymnasium 73% of the time or in both the gymnasium and outside 27% of the time, depending on environmental conditions. The intensity categories of physical activity sessions were ‘sedentary’ (9%), ‘walking’ (32%) or ‘vigorous’ (59%). Common games were basketball, handball, kickball, parachute and free play. SL observed that male children were more likely to engage in play with male youth mentors or facilitators. Sometimes during play, a child would move to the sidelines to take a break for a few minutes or because they didn’t want to play a particular game. Because relationship building was woven within the program, within minutes another child or youth mentor would encourage the child to rejoin the activities. When a child did not physically participate in an activity they would still participate by maintaining a score card. Children often displayed friendship towards one another by cheering for others during games, patting each other on the back, and joking or laughing together during program sessions.

The cultural/traditional teachings component was embedded within the program. Both schools included Elders from the local community as cultural advisors and teachers. In IYMP the Elders and YAHLs engaged children in activities such as making bracelets using Medicine Wheel colors, sharing circles, the Seven Grandfather Teachings (ie wisdom, love, respect, bravery, honesty, humility and truth), traditional language (Cree and/or Stoney) in games or in prayer, and burning sweetgrass for ceremonial purposes (ie smudging). The Medicine Wheel symbolizes concepts such as the power/medicine of the four directions (east, south, west, north). Many participants helped each other when making the Medicine Wheel bracelets. Traditional teachings were frequently shared when children were gathered in a sharing circle. Questions were asked to set up the teachings such as, ‘What does honesty mean to you?’ Sharing circles were used to debrief at the end of sessions, where children were asked what they liked best that day or to make suggestions for the next session.


There is limited information about the implementation and scalability of school health programs developed for Indigenous children globally18,34. To allow flexibility, IYMP schools are encouraged to adapt the mode of delivery and core components to ensure that the program meets their needs26,35. This research demonstrated that it was feasible for two Alberta rural community schools to deliver all program components. Connecting children with cultural traditions and language revitalization are important initiatives in Indigenous communities that promote wellness and strengthen children’s and youth’s resilience36-41. Both schools made cultural infusions to the program through community engagement with Elders and incorporation of Cree or Stoney First Nations languages in games such as ‘tag’. Youth mentors involved in a similar Indigenous peer mentorship program in Canada deemed cultural connections with Elder guidance a key outcome of their mentorship experience40,41.

The majority of snacks offered to children were healthy; however, not all snack choices were in the choose most often category. Although both communities are within an hour’s drive to a city, not everyone has easy access to healthy fresh foods. In consideration of this, IYMP planning in rural and remote locations could work with schools to make fruits and vegetables accessible. Participating communities could also be supported to find ways to encourage the inclusion of more vigorous activities. The Alberta communities had fewer male children, youth mentors and YAHLs. Research is required to see if this gender disparity exists in other communities and, if it does, to explore why there is lower male involvement.

Effectiveness and sustainability in real-world settings is an important component of scaling up programs35,42. In both Alberta First Nations schools, infusing traditional cultural practices into program components was a facilitator for fidelity of program implementation. Optimal IYMP implementation mitigates the risk of acquiring lifestyle diseases because it incorporates holistic approaches that honor local Indigenous voices and worldviews43.


The results of this study demonstrated that it is possible to implement all core components of a program with flexibility in Indigenous communities by respecting local traditions and knowledge. The lessons gleaned from this research may also be used to understand the rippling of similar Indigenous peer-led mentoring initiatives globally.


IYMP National Team members are Roy Arcand, Colin Baillie, Tamara Beardy, Tara-Lee Beardy, Barbara Carlson, Lawrence Enosse, Keri Esau, Leah Ferguson, Rick Fewchuk, Joannie M. Halas, Donna Ivimey, Jay Johnson, Jody Kootenay, Lucie Lévesque, Sabrina Lopresti, Alex M. McComber, Jonathan M. McGavock, Tara-Leigh McHugh, Connie McIvor, Heather McRae, Addy Poulette, Jack Robinson, Carol Rogers, Rene Roulette, Frances Sobierajski, Jenna Stacey, Kate E. Storey, Brian Torrance, Maria Fernanda Torres Ruiz, Mary-Jo Wabano, Noreen D. Willows, Eric Wood, Larry Wood, Nancy L. Young.


1 World Health Organization. Indigenous populations. 2020. Available: web link (Accessed 7 April 2020).
2 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Indigenous peoples. 2020. Available: web link (Accessed 7 April 2020).
3 Pigford AE, Willows ND. Promoting optimal weights in Aboriginal children in Canada through ecological research. Childhood obesity prevention: International Research, Controversies and Interventions 2010; 309: 320. DOI link
4 Beavis AS, Hojjati A, Kassam A, Choudhury D, Fraser M, Masching R, et al. What all students in healthcare training programs should learn to increase health equity: perspectives on postcolonialism and the health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. BMC Medical Education 2015; 15(1): 1-11. DOI link, PMid:26400722
5 United Nations Global Assembly. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. 2007. Available: web link (Accessed 7 April 2020).
6 Government of Canada. Statistics Canada. 2018. Available: web link (Accessed 15 December 2019).
7 Willows N. Ethics and research with Indigenous peoples. In: P Liamputtong (Ed.). Handbook of research methods in health social sciences. Singapore: Springer Nature, 2019; 1847-1870. DOI link
8 Storey KE, Spitters H, Cunningham C, Schwartz M, Veugelers PJ. Implementing comprehensive school health: teachers’ perceptions of the Alberta Project Promoting Active Living and Healthy Eating in Schools-APPLE Schools. Revue phénEPS/PHEnex Journal 2011; 3(2): 1-18.
9 Joint Consortium for School Health. Comprehensive School Health Framework. What is Comprehensive School Health? 2018. Available: web link (Accessed 28 November 2019).
10 Toulouse PR. What matters in Indigenous education: implementing a vision committed to holism, diversity and engagement. Toronto, ON: People for Education, 2016.
11 Epstein JL. School, family, and community partnerships: preparing educators and improving schools. New York, NY: Routledge, 2018. DOI link
12 Langford R, Bonell C, Jones H, Campbell R. Obesity prevention and the Health promoting Schools framework: essential components and barriers to success. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2015; 12(1): 15-32. DOI link, PMid:25885800
13 McKernan C, Montemurro G, Chahal H, Veugelers PJ, Gleddie D, Storey KE. Translation of school-learned health behaviours into the home: student insights through photovoice. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2019; 110(6): 821-830. DOI link, PMid:31309443
14 Gillies C, Blanchet R, Gokiert R, Farmer A, Thorlakson J, Hamonic L, et al. School based nutrition interventions for Indigenous children in Canada: a scoping review. BMC Public Health 2020; 20(1): 1-12. DOI link, PMid:31906984
15 Ronsley R, Lee AS, Kuzeljevic B, Panagiotopoulos C. Healthy Buddies™ reduces body mass index Z‐score and waist circumference in aboriginal children living in remote coastal communities. Journal of School Health 2013; 83(9): 605-613. DOI link, PMid:23879779
16 Santos RG, Durksen A, Rabbani R, Chanoine JP, Miln AL, Mayer T, et al. Effectiveness of peer-based healthy living lesson plans on anthropometric measures and physical activity in elementary school students: a cluster randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association Pediatrics 2014; 168(4): 330-337. DOI link, PMid:24515353
17 Kroes G. Aboriginal youth in Canada: emerging issues, research priorities, and policy implications. Ottawa, ON: Policy Research Initiative, 2008.
18 Vujcich D, Thomas J, Crawford K, Ward J. Indigenous youth peer-led health promotion in Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States: a systematic review of the approaches, study designs, and effectiveness. Frontiers in Public Health 2018; 6: 31. DOI link, PMid:29497608
19 Williamson HJ, Young BR, Murray N, Burton DL, Levin BL, Massey OT, et al. Community-university partnerships for research and practice: application of an interactive and contextual model of collaboration. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 2016; 20(2): 55-84.
20 Brendtro L, Brokenleg M. Reclaiming youth at risk: our hope for the future. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press, 2009.
21 Kirkness VJ, Barnhardt R. First Nations and higher education: the four R’s – respect, relevance, reciprocity, responsibility. Journal of American Indian Education 1991; 30: 1-15.
22 McRae H. AYMP Manual & Resource Kit for coordinators and Staff. Rec and Read Mentorship Program for All Nations. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba, 2016.
23 Eskicioglu P, Halas J, Sénéchal M, Wood L, McKay E, Villeneuve S, et al. Peer mentoring for type 2 diabetes prevention in First Nations children. Pediatrics 2014; 133(6): 1624-1631. DOI link, PMid:24819579
24 Public Health Agency of Canada. Canadian Best Practices Portal. 2016. Available: web link (Accessed 23 January 2020).
25 Wan G, Jetha N, Wilkerson T, Dubois N, DesMeules M. The Canadian Best Practices Portal for health promotion and chronic disease prevention: a coordinated approach to accessing diabetes prevention interventions. Canadian Journal of Diabetes 2008; 32(4): 318. DOI link
26 Indig D, Lee K, Grunseit A, Milat A, Bauman A. Pathways for scaling up public health interventions. BMC Public Health 2018; 18(1): 68-7. DOI link, PMid:28764785
27 Stake RE. The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995.
28 Boodhoo R, Purmessur RD. Justifications for qualitative research in organisations: a step forward. Journal of Online Education (New York) 2009; 6 January. Available: web link (Accessed 31 August 2020).
29 Yazan B. Three approaches to case study methods in education: Yin, Merriam, and Stake. The Qualitative Report 2015; 20(2): 134-152.
30 Alberta Government. Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth. 2012. Available: web link (Accessed 28 February 2020).
31 Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canadian 24-hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth. 2020. Available: web link (Accessed 28 February 2020).
32 van der Mars H. Teaching monitoring analysis system. In: PW Darst (Ed.). Analyzing physical education and sport instruction. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publications, 1989.
33 First Nations Information Governance Centre. Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP™): the path to First Nations information governance. Available: web link (Accessed 7 April 2020).
34 McKay HA, Macdonald HM, Nettlefold L, Masse LC, Day M, Naylor PJ. Action Schools! BC implementation: from efficacy to effectiveness to scale-up. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2015; 49(4): 210-218. DOI link, PMid:25312876
35 Huebschmann AG, Leavitt IM, Glasgow RE. Making health research matter: a call to increase attention to external validity. Annual Review of Public Health 2019; 40: 45-63. DOI link, PMid:30664836
36 Atkinson D. Considerations for Indigenous child and youth population mental health promotion in Canada. Prince George, BC: National Collaborating Centres for Public Health, Canada, 2017.
37 Auger MD. Cultural continuity as a determinant of Indigenous peoples’ health: a metasynthesis of qualitative research in Canada and the United States. International Indigenous Policy Journal 2016; 7(4). DOI link
38 Currie C. Social determinants of alcohol, drug and gambling problems among urban aboriginal adults in Canada. April 2012. Available: web link (Accessed 20 December 2019).
39 Wexler L, Joule L, Garoutte J, Mazziotti J, Hopper K. ‘Being responsible, respectful, trying to keep the tradition alive’: cultural resilience and growing up in an Alaska Native community. Transcultural Psychiatry 2014; 51(5): 693-712. DOI link, PMid:24014513
40 Coyne-Foresi M, Crooks CV, Chiodo D, Nowicki EA, Dare L. Teaching them, teaching me: youth conceptualize benefits of being a mentor in an indigenous high school peer mentoring program. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning 2019; 27(5): 531-548. DOI link
41 Trovarello E. Reflections of mentoring for indigenous youth in the fourth R. Doctoral dissertation. London, ON: University of Western Ontario, 2019.
42 Hughes R. Practical public health nutrition. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
43 Lopresti S, Willows ND, Storey KE, McHugh TLF, IYMP National Team. Indigenous Youth Mentorship Program: key implementation characteristics of a school peer mentorship program in Canada. Health Promotion International 2020 (in press).

You might also be interested in:

2017 - Gene therapy renews hope to lower the global rural sickle cell disease burden

2013 - Examination of the relative importance of hospital employment in non-metropolitan counties using location quotients

2009 - Outcomes of different subgroups of smear-positive retreatment patients under RNTCP in rural West Bengal, India