Original Research

Clinical outcomes in patients hospitalised with dysmagnesemia in the Northern Territory of Australia: a retrospective, longitudinal data-linkage study


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#Juhaina Salim Al-Maqbali
1,2 MSc

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#Abdullah M Al Alawi
3,4 FRACP, Senior Consultant * ORCID logo

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Asanga Abeyaratne
5,6,7 FRACP

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Sandawana William Majoni
5,6,7 FRACP

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Henrik Falhammar
8,9,10 FRACP

#Contributed equally


1 Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman

2 Department of Pharmacy, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman

3 Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman

4 Internal Medicine Residency Training Program, Oman Medical Specialty Board, Muscat, Oman

5 Department of Nephrology, Division of Medicine, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, NT, Australia

6 Royal Darwin Hospital Campus, Northern Territory Clinical School, Flinders University, Darwin, NT, Australia

7 Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia

8 Division of Medicine, Royal Darwin Hospital, Darwin, NT, Australia

9 Department of Endocrinology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

10 Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

ACCEPTED: 23 March 2024

early abstract:

Background: Magnesium is an essential cation, and dysmagnesmia is linked to many poor outcomes. This study aims to assess the prevalence of dysmagnesemia and associated health outcomes among hospitalised patients.
Methods: This register-based study collected demographic and laboratory data of hospitalised patients from five publicly funded hospitals in the Northern Territory, Australia, between 2008 and 2017. Patients were stratified into five groups based on their initial serum magnesium level at admission and followed up to death or 31 December 2017.
Results: A total of 22,293 patients were admitted during the study period. Dysmagnesemia was present in 31.75% of hospitalised patients, with hypomagnesemia being more common (29.62%) than hypermagnesemia (2.13%). Hypomagnesemia was more prevalent (43.13%) among Australian First Nations peoples. All levels of hypomagnesemia were associated with a longer median length of hospital stay (p<0.001). Also, all levels of hypermagnesemia were associated with a longer median stay in intensive care units (p<0.001). Patients with severe hypermagnesemia had increased mortality compared with patients with severe hypomagnesemia (56.0% versus 38.0.0%, <0.0001). Mortality was increased in both hypomagnesemia (hazard ratio 1.86, 95%CI 1.74-1.99, p<0.001) and hypermagnesemia (1.78, 1.48-2.19, p<0.001) compared with normomagnesemia.
Conclusion: Dysmagnesemia was prevalent among hospitalised patients and associated with increased mortality.
Keywords: Magnesium, Hospitalization, Mortality, Length of Stay, Australian First Nations, Indigenous